Acid: One of the four tastes of wine. It is sometines described as sour or tart and can be found on the sides of the tongue and mouth.
Aligoté: (Ah-ee-go-TAY) A white grape grown in the Burgundy region of France.
Aloxe Corton: (Ah-LOHSS Cor-TAWN) A village in the Côte d'Or in Burgundy, France.
Amarone: (Ah-ma-ROH-nay) A type of Veronese wine made by a special process in which grapes are harvested late and allowed to "raisinate," thus producing a higher alcohol percentage in the wine and sometimes a sweet taste on the palate.
Amontillado: (Ah-mone-tee-YAH-doe) A type of Sherry.
Anjou Rosé: A rosé wine from the Loire Valley in France.
A.O.C.: An abbreviation for Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée; the French government agency that controls wine production there.
A.P. number: The official testing number displayed on a German wine label that shows the wine was tasted and passed government quality-control standards.
Aroma: The smell of the grapes in a wine.
Auslese: (OUSE-lay-zeh). A sweet white German wine made from selected bunches of late-picked grapes.
A.V.A.: An abbreviation for American Viticultural Area.
Barbaresco: (Bar-bar-ESS-coh) A full-bodied, D.O.C.G read wine from Piedmont, Italy; made from the Nebbiolo grape.
Barbera: (Bar-BEAR-ah) A red grape grown primarily in Piedmont, Italy.
Barolo: (Bar-OH-lo) A full-bodied D.O.C.G. red wine from Piedmont, Italy; made from the Nebbiolo grape.
B.A.T.F.: An abbreviation for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms; the government agency that controls wine production in the United States.
Beaujolais: (Bo-zho-LAY) A light, fruity red Burgundy wine from the region of Beaujolais; in terms of quality, the basic Beaujolais.
Beaujolais Nouveau: (Bo-zho-LAY New-VOH) The "new" Beauujolais that's produced and delivered to retailers in a matter of weeks after the harvest.
Beaujolais-Villages: (Bo-sho-LAY vih-LAHZH) A Beaujolais wine that comes from a blend of grapes from designated villages in the region; it's a step up in quality from regular Beaujolais.
Beaune: (Bone) French city located in the center of the Côte d'Or in Burgundy.
Beerenauslese: (Bear-en-OUSE-lay-zeh) A full-bodied, sweet white German wine made from rich, ripe grapes affected by "botrytis."
Blanc de Blancs: (Blahnk duh BLAHNK) A white wine made from white grapes.
Blanc de Noir: (Blahnk duh NWAHR) A white wine made from red grapes.
Botrysis cinerea: (Bow-TRIED-iss Sin-eh-RAY-ah) A mould that forms on the grapes, know also as "noble rot," which is necessary to make Sauternes and the rich German wines Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese.
Bouquet: The smell of the wine.
Brix: (Bricks) A scale that measures the sugar level of the unfermented grape juice (must).
Brunello di Montalcino: (Brew-NELL-oh dee Mon-tahl-CHEE-no) A high-quality D.O.C.G. red Italian wine from the Tuscny region.
Brut: (Brute) The driest style of Champagne.
Cabernet Franc: (Cah-burr-NAY FRAHNK) A red grape of the Bordeaux region of France.
Cabernet Sauvignon: (Cah-burr-NAY Sow-vee-NYOH) The most important red grape grown in the world, which yields many of the great wines of Bordeaux and California.
Chablis: (Shah-BLEE) The morthernmost region in Burgundy; a wine that comes from Chardoneeay grapes grown anywhere in the Chablis district.
Chambolle-Musigny: (Shahm-BOWL Moos-een-YEE) A village in teh Côte d'Or in Burgundy, France.
Champagne: The region in France that produces the only sparkling wine to be authentically entitled Champagne.
Chaptalization: The addition of sugar to the must (fresh grape juice) before fermentation.
Chardonnay: (Shahr-dun-NAY) The most important and expensice white grape, now grown all over the world; nearly all French white Burgundy wines are made from 100 percent Chardonnay.
Chassagne-Montrachet: (Shahs-SAHN-ya MOWN-rah-SHAY) A village in the Côte d'Or in Burgundy, France.
Château: (Shah-TOH) The French "legal" definition is house attached to a vineyard having a spacific number of acres with winemaking and storage facilities on the property.
Château wine: Usually the best quality Bordeaux wine.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape: (Shah-toh-NUFF-dew-POP):A red wine from the southern Rhône Valley region of France; the name means "new castle of the Pope."
Chenin Blane: A white grape grown in the Loire Valley region of France and in California.
Chianti: (Key-AHN-tee): A DOCG red wine from the Tuscany region of Italy.
Chianti Classico: (Key-AHN-tee CLASS-ee-ko) One step above Chianti in terms of quality, this wine is from an inner district of Chianti.
Chianti Classico Riserva: (Key-AHN-tee CLASS-ee-ko Re-SER-va) The best quality level of Italian Chianti; it is aged for a minimum of three years.
Cinsault: (San-SO) A red grape from France's Rhône Valley.
Classified châteaus: The châteaus in the Bordeaux region of France that are known to produce the best wine.
Concord: A red grape used to make some NewYork State wines.
Colheita: (Coal-AY-ta) The term meaning "vintage" in Portuguese.
Cosecha: (Coh-SAY-cha) The term meaning "harvest" in Spanish.
Côte de Beaune: (Coat duh BONE) The southern portion of the Côte d'Or in Burgundy; known especially for fine white wines.
Côte de Nuits: (Coat duh NWEE) The northern portion of the Côte d'Or in Burgundy; known especially for fine red wines.
Côte d'Or: (Coat DOOR) The district in Burgundy that is known for some of the finest wines in the world.
Côte Rotie: (Coat Row-TEE) A red wine from the northern RhôneValley region of France.
Côtes-du-Rhône: (Coat dew ROAN) The RhôneValley region of France; also the regional wine from this district.
Cream Sherry: A type of Sherry made from a mixture of Pedro Ximénez and Oloroso.
Crianza: (Cree-AHN-za) The most basic and least expensive quality level of Rioja wine.
Crozes-Hermitage: (Crows Air-mee-TAHZH) A red wine from the north ern Rhône Valley region of France.
Cru Beaujolais: The top grade of Beaujolais wine, coming from any one of ten designated villages in that region of France.
Cru Bourgeois: (Crew Bour-ZHWAH) A list of more than 400 châteaus in Bordeaux that have been recognized for their quality.
Decanting: The process of pouring wine from its bottle into a carafe to separate the sediment from the wine.
Dégorgement: (Day-gorzh-MOWN) One step of the Méthode Champenoise, used to expel the sediment from the bottle.
Demi-sec: (Deh-mee SECK) A champagne containing a high level of residual sugar.
D.O.C.: An abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata; the Italian government agency that controls wine production there.
D.O.C.G.: An abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita; the Italian government allows this marking to appear only on the finest wines. The "G" stands for "Guaranteed."
Dolcetto: (Dohl-CHET-toh) A red wine from Piedmont, Italy, that is similar in style to a Beaujolais wine.
Dosage: (Doh-SAHZH) A combination of wine and cane sugar that is used in making Champagne.
Edelfaule: (EH-del-foy-luh) A German name for the mould that forms on the grapevines when the conditions permit it. (See also Botrytis cinerea and "Noble Rot.")
Erzeugerabfüllung: (AIR-tzew-ger-AHB-fue-lung) A German word for an estate-bottled wine.
Estate-bottled: Wine that's made, produced, and bottled by the vineyard's owner.
Extra dry: Less dry than brut Champagne.
Fermentation: The process by which grape juice is made into wine.
Fino: (FEE-noh) A type of Sherry.
First growth: The highest-quality Bordeaux chateau wine from the Classification of 1855.
Flor: A type of yeast that develops in some Sherry production.
Fortified wine: A wine such as Port and Sherry that has additional grape brandy that raises the alcohol content.
French Colombard: A white grape grown in California and used to make jug wines.